Frank welcomes Dr. Ted Steinberg, author of the book Gotham Unbound: The Ecological History of Greater New York. Dr. Steinberg begins by explaining the origins of the book, and then describes the ecological condition of New York City before European colonization. He explains the biological diversity once found in this rich estuary, and breaks down the reason why this particular location became such a magnet for human commerce and engineering. The historical process of industrial development led to the division of underwater parcels and subsequently massive increases to the size of the island of Manhattan. Also, the growth of New York City was made possible via massive infrastructure projects in transportation and other infrastructure, most notably infrastructure to move water vast distances to feed the insatiable appetite of an ever-growing population. Finally, Dr. Steinberg discusses the good and bad of New York’s open space, concluding with a brief discussion of species extinctions caused by water pollution.